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Otitis ( "ear infection" often called) occurs in children of different ages (almost from birth).
To diagnose the disease at times it is very difficult:
- Firstly, there are several forms of otitis -inflammation of the external auditory canal (or it boil or diffuse inflammation), otitis media (chronic and acute) and, of course, an inflammation of the inner ear (another name - labyrinthitis);
- secondly, acute otitis media subdivided into several species (banal, traumatic, etc.);
- thirdly, earache may be "echo" diseases of the teeth and jaw and not otitis.
But in any case, otitis media - a strong pain,able to torment a young child. At the same time, like any other disease, the treatment of otitis media in children should begin to clarify the reasons for its occurrence.
Before proceeding to the subsequent explanations should be familiar with the ear structure of the scheme:
The structure of the ear
Diffuse inflammation caused by infectionvarious wounds and abrasions of the skin of the ear, resulting from careless scratching, burns, purulent diseases and injuries. In this form of otitis child will complain of itching and pain. From the ear begins to leak pus, having an unpleasant smell. Quickly make a correct diagnosis can be difficult because the symptoms are very similar to diseases of the middle ear (acute otitis media).
Treatment (as in all other cases) should be appointed by a qualified practitioner, because improper use of drugs can lead to hearing loss. Most often, it is recommended:
- removal of pus sterile swabs (gauze or cotton)
- ear canal should be thoroughly washed with a solution of furatsilina or three-percent solution of boric acid,
- cauterize sores should be 2-5% silver nitrate solution;
- the external auditory canal (skin) - lubricate Oksikort or sintomitsinovoy emulsion.
The second variant of otitis externa - boil -It occurs when the infection gets into the hair and sebaceous glands of the ear department (including when used for cleaning ear pins, matches and other traumatic skin of the ear, objects). "Ripening" boil under the skin, reducing the size of the ear canal. At the same time, growing, becoming quite painful lymph nodes. In a week (or less) usually boil "breaks" on their own or require its disclosure. Possible relapse, especially in the presence of these diseases in the child, such as diabetes, metabolic disease or kidney disease.
Treatment consists of inserting into the ear canal swab impregnated with boric alcohol, physical therapy, vitamin therapy and hot compress.
Very often, the disease manifests itself inbabies. This occurs due to the fact that their Eustachian tube has not grown to the normal size, while remaining shorter and wider, and therefore more susceptible to the penetration of various infections (especially in acute respiratory infections and nasal mucus formation).
In children aged 4-7 years, usually otitisdevelops as a consequence of the disease, difficulty breathing through the nose (rhinitis, adenoids, sinusitis), plus the concomitant lowering of immunity. There are other causes of otitis media in children - is acute infectious diseases (influenza, measles, scarlet fever).
Acute inflammation occurs when an infection enters (via the Eustachian tube) from the nose in the tympanic cavity, and it can last up to several weeks.
Location of the middle ear cavity is presented below:
Doctors distinguish between three stages ear otitis media:
Stage I - appears and begins to develop inflammation, exudate is formed;
Stage II - the appearance of the hole (perforation) in the eardrum and suppuration;
Stage III - the gradual remission of inflammation, reduction and complete cessation of the expiry of the pus, the fusion of the edges of the damaged eardrum.
Otitis media (in its acute form) is particularlydangerous complications: labyrinthitis, the defeat of the auditory and vestibular function, intracranial complications (meningitis, brain abscess), as well as the paralysis of the facial nerve.
The main symptoms of otitis media in the stage I of the childthe disease will manifest itself in the form of a sharp pain in the ear, hearing loss, fever (often up to 40 °). In stage II eardrum bulges slightly and then spontaneously its perforation and suppuration (at lower temperatures and reducing the test toddler pain). In stage III children often complain of hearing loss.
How to treat? Upon confirmation of the diagnosis assigned treatment with antibiotics (if suppuration - with the obligatory definition of sensitivity to them microflora), antipyretic drugs. Also, full peace with mandatory bed rest, vasoconstrictor nasal drops, warming packs, physical therapy. Remember that the treatment of any form of otitis media should appoint otolaryngologist, it can also perform and the incision of the eardrum to the ear blowing (in the case of such a need).
If otitis media is already "walked" in hischronic phase (if not properly treated, self-medication, the presence of inflammation, also passing into a chronic state in nasopharynx), suppuration of the ear will occur either continuously or with small breaks. This reduces the ear and the eardrum is perforated. Chronic otitis media can cause destruction of the bone tissue of the ear, facial paralysis, otogennyh sepsis, meningitis and brain abscess.
Treatment is primarily intended to bedelay warning of pus in the ear (the ear should be cleaned with a disinfectant solution, followed by drying with a mandatory daily auditory canal). With little suppuration can be assigned to the injection into the ear of a small amount of finely ground powder of boric acid, antibiotics and sulfonamides (as provided by "hit" of drugs directly to the site of virus infection). With the ineffectiveness of medical treatment may require surgical intervention.
To prevent exacerbation of the disease is recommended to bathe the child (as well as to wash his head), but covering his ears with cotton wool soaked in petroleum jelly or any other oil.