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Children, even the smallest - newborns,surprisingly mobile. It is worth just for a moment to reach for a bottle or simply ignore, as your child slips with changing table, falls and hits the head. Mother Nature has provided wise crumbs protective devices from the "flight": the abundance of the cerebrospinal fluid that cushions the "soften" blows, cranial fontanelle - cartilaginous tissue, the ability to "bounce" when struck. However, the weight of the head relative to the body from the crumbs significantly increased, so injured in the first parietal region. Back of the head and forehead bruises experiencing much less.
What to do if a child has fallen? Firstly, do not panic! Do not look for the guilty! It is better to focus on the kid and find out as soon as possible: what is the severity of the injury.
Pediatricians are advised to examine the injured spot and watch the child: at the first sign of injury or concussion immediately call a doctor!
Examination of the head after the fall
Varieties of head injuries:
- Superficial damage. If you find a small bruise or lump, there was only a bruise of soft tissues of the head of your offspring (not the brain!), You need to treat wounds or to make cold cone (any food from the freezer, wrapped in a towel). A child cry for 15-20 minutes of their "misfortune", calms down and continues to play as if nothing had happened. If no other symptoms are not detected, you can not go to the doctor.
- Brain concussion. In this case, the injury is much more serious: there may come a short-term loss of consciousness (syncope), start vomiting (in children under the age of 3 months - abundant, repeated), the skin begins to fade, and breaking into a cold sweat. Baby suffers lethargy, drowsiness, loses appetite, refuses food. Older children may complain of tinnitus and headache.
- brain contusion. Even more serious damage after the injury for a long time can be disconnected consciousness (sometimes baby can not recover more than one hour). Especially severe cases accompanied by disturbances of breathing and heart rate.
- Fracture of skull base. Terrible trauma, accompanied by severe general condition of the child, it may be the expiration of the blood or liquor (lighter fluid) from the ear or nose. Around the eyes are formed "glasses" of bruises. Parents should be aware that symptoms of skull fractures appear immediately, but after a few hours.
- If the strike did not happen damage to bonesskull, then to the site of injury are putting a damp cool cloth or ice wrapped in a diaper (towel). It's numb, relieve swelling and bleeding suspend.
- If the wound is more than a scratch, stopbleeding a pair of tight sterile gauze swabs or tissue. After 15 minutes, everything should work out, but if the blood continues to flow, immediately call the doctor!
- The child must be provided in any case rest, butsleep for an hour to give it is impossible, as severe symptoms of the condition can be skipped. We'll have to wake the child, even at night. If broken motor coordination, older baby is not able to answer a simple question or a gag process continues, urgently call me baby "Dr. Dolittle"!
- Check the size of the pupils of the child if he is not the same, then the brain is damaged seriously. Even if the baby is asleep, and you suspect the presence in the danger of injury, immediately call the pediatrician!
- If the baby hit the head and lost consciousness, and you have caused "first aid", the crumbs turn sideways to suddenly vomit were not in the respiratory tract.
- If your child has fallen from the height of the head orback, it could in this case be affected, except for the brain, spine. The victim is a baby you need to turn in this situation is extremely delicate, head and body should be on the same axis. This may avoid additional damage.
- Child in connection with the injury needs constantcare, you need to monitor it closely during the week. In the first days after the accident, the little man himself does not seek to be active, fidget and then begins to show its character. Walking with your baby can not, computer and TV - a taboo. Take the hospital, arrange crumbs peace, protect from visual stress (especially children and a half-two years of age): TV shows, cartoons. Reading books is not more than 30 minutes a day playing on the floor long "trains" or machines, build with blocks or Lego designers with large parts. Drawing pencils, markers and pens are straining the optic nerve. Occupies a baby with applications of colored paper. Lepim of clay or plasticine, figurines made of gypsum colorable. Older children can sort through cereals, macramé weaving, knitting or beading engaged.
- What to pay attention during the game? Does your child with both hands in the game or often acts alone? When a child draws, the second idle upper limb Do not slide under the table? Do not shake hands much? Do not squint appeared? Does the baby adequately answers the questions, do not confuse whether in words, verbs, names? Did his memory deteriorated?
To which the doctor ask
Even if you think your child afterinjuries received after falling from a low height were not in danger, he stops crying, relatively quietly behaved, do not be lazy, please refer immediately to children's specialists: traumatologist, neurologist and neurosurgeon. Ambulance caused to the house, takes you to the baby in the hospital. You can also self-refer to the surgical emergency department at Children's Hospital, where doctors advice above is available. If the abnormality is not confirmed them, you calmly return home to care for a child in the family circle.
Delaying a visit to specialists dangerousLate diagnosis of injury, deterioration of the baby, as well as the occurrence of coma. It may be necessary in this case, the treatment in the intensive care unit or conduct a complex operation. Due to the late appeal to doctors to increase the risk of death, occurrence of various complications, much longer recovery period runs worse and its result, pending the appointment of a disability.
First aid for fractures
Not even a very strong fall canprovoke in children acute pain in arm or leg. Because of her kids more often capricious and do not want to move a sick limb because the pain of such an attempt sharply increases.
Symptoms of fracture: color of the skin around the injured area and the mobility of the fingers. If damaged large blood vessels or nerves, the skin is cyanotic or "marble". The presence of serious damage to the hand shows no ripple at hand. Bleeding wounds or lesions, threatening vital functions of a child's body - the indications for immediate hospitalization in trauma or surgical department. On the gash there impose seams.
Children's bone is different from the adult of its fragility and it breaks down faster.
At the turn to reduce the pain and reduce the risk ofbone fixation will help offset the injured extremity. Any improvised means: a board, a stick or ruler is suitable for tires. Broken arm bone can additionally hang on the dressing of the handkerchief.
Unnatural rotated to align the limb is prohibited: you can further damage the bone and soft tissue, and cause to the same painful shock.
In order to reduce the pain, it is desirable to give the child the anesthetic, but any liquid and food contraindicated because hospitalization may require anesthesia fumes.
Provide first aid, urgently deliver the child to trauma or surgery.
How to save the "flyers" from possible injury? Of course, it is better to carry out preventive maintenance and provide maximum attention to the kids.
- Child months old, lying on his tummy, withhappy feet repelled from the back of the sofa, bed, changing table rim, which can cause it to fall. Always follow the crumbs, leaving him for a moment.
- Any attempt to sit, stand or crawl could also end sadly loss of strollers, highchair (without fastening).
- Stepping aside from the baby, put him in the crib or pre arena.
- The stroller and highchair child need to secure.
- Near the stairs in the house is required to install fencing to protect, so that your child does not start to develop it, getting up, immediately fall.
- Unsafe invention for children - "walker". The child in them can strongly push, hit about any subject, roll over them or fall down the stairs.
- The "jumpers" dangerous unpredictable trajectory jump: for example, the child may hit the wall.
- Baby may also fall due to slippery uncomfortable shoes. Do not wear shoes too big on the kid, and neutralize slippery rubber blotches.
- If the child began to crawl, urgently retoolingapartment: solid surface is covered with carpets or tracks, hide sharp corners for tips. The floors are covered with tiles, was covered with non-slip mats made of rubber. In traumatic rooms: the kitchen, the toilet and the bathroom do not leave a child of any fraction of a second!
Children who have never fallen, does not exist in nature. But adult task - to provide them with maximum protection.